Measures have been taken, however, to ameliorate those problems.
Area city, 15 square miles (38 square km); National Capital Region, 244 square miles (633 square km). (2000) city, 1,581,082; National Capital Region, 9,932,560; (2010) city, 1,652,171; National Capital Region, 11,855,975. Immediately to the northeast and east of the urban region lies a stretch of lowlands, beyond which rise the peaks of the southern range of the Sierra Madre.
Manila Bay abounds with sardines, anchovies, mackerel, tuna, snappers, and barracuda.
The city’s natural beauty is marred, however, by air and water pollution caused by the expansion of industry and the growing number of motor vehicles.
Although business areas are widespread, the districts to the north of the river—especially along the bay and in the city’s west-central region— constitute the chief centres of trade and commerce.The city is dotted with palms, banyans, acacias, and other tropical trees, and bamboo grows in many public parks.Domestic mammals—such as water buffalo, horses, dogs, pigs, and goats—are common, while wild birdlife includes shrikes, doves, and pigeons.The Manila cathedral was rebuilt in the 1950s and is an important landmark.It succeeds five earlier cathedrals—the first dating from the mid-16th century—that were destroyed either by earthquakes or during wartime.